Se ha publicado el Perfil de Salud en Inglaterra (Health Profile for England) para el año 2017 donde se realiza una buena compilación de datos para dar una «fotografía» de la situación de salud en Inglaterra, se hace un esfuerzo por sintetizar y difusión esta información en diez puntos clave:
1. Estamos viviendo más pero con peor mala salud.
It’s great news that we’re living longer but the stats also show that we are spending much of the extra time suffering with poor health – around 16 years of ill health for men and 19 for women.
We’re increasingly concerned about this because an ageing population – struggling with poor health – impacts on families, our workplaces and of course increases pressure on health services and social care.
2. Las causas de muerte están cambiando.
Though heart disease is still a common cause of death, death rates from heart disease and stroke have halved for both men and women since 2001, mainly due to better prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
But during the same period death rates from dementia and Alzheimer’s have increased by 60% in males and have doubled in females, partly due to our ageing population and greater awareness of dementia.
3. Dicho informe recopila las principales causas de falta de salud.
You might be surprised to learn that the biggest causes of morbidity in England are low back and neck pain followed by skin diseases, with depression in third place.
Along with mental health, poor musculoskeletal health (like back and neck pain) accounts for the majority of sickness absence in the UK, making this an issue of concern beyond the health sector.
4. La esperanza de vida cambia entre los diferentes países de Europa.
Across the 28 countries of the EU, in 2015, the UK was ranked in 10th place for male life expectancy but only in 17th place for female life expectancy.
Looking at other EU countries with large populations, France, Italy and Spain have all seen their life expectancy increasing at a faster rate than ours.
5. Nuestra salud está relacionada con nuestra clase social.
There’s a strong link between wealth and health. Men living in the most deprived areas in England can expect to live 9 fewer years compared to men in the least deprived areas – females can expect to live 7 fewer years.
And both men and women living in the most deprived areas can expect to spend nearly 20 fewer years in good health compared with those in the least deprived areas.
Some people in deprived areas are spending nearly a third of their lives in poor health.
6. Algunas personas, viviendo en zonas más pobres, tienen vidas menos saludables.
In poorer areas the prevalence of inactivity and smoking are both highest, while the proportion of people eating the recommended 5-a-day of fruits and vegetables is the lowest.
7. Hemos visto una gran reducción de muertes por causas infecciosas.
In 1901, around one third of deaths were due to an infectious disease, but thankfully our modern public health system, vaccines and antibiotics have revolutionised the way we protect ourselves from infections. Now, just 8% of all deaths in England are from infectious disease.
8. No podemos ser complacientes con las infecciones.
We constantly monitor emerging risks to the UK including the risk posed by infections. This could be emerging or re-emerging diseases, such as Ebola, Zika Virus or pandemic flu.
But scientists and doctors are particularly worried about antimicrobial resistance, which happens when microbes that cause disease (including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) are no longer killed by the drugs we’ve previously relied on.
9. El clima extremo afecta a nuestra salud.
For instance, in 2015/16 there were an estimated 24,300 ‘excess deaths’ during winter – that’s the extra deaths that occur in winter compared with the rest of the year (older people are most affected by excess winter deaths, the causes of which are complex, but are considered largely to be due to cold weather and infections like flu).
High temperatures are also associated with excess deaths or illness, particularly in older people, young children and people with long term conditions, as these groups are less able to keep cool.
In the UK, summers have become hotter and by 2040 heatwaves similar to the 2003 heatwave which led to 2,000 excess deaths, are expected to become the norm.
10. La polución del aire está relacionada con miles de muertes
Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution is linked to thousands of deaths, particularly from heart or lung disease.
In England, it is estimated to have an effect equivalent to around 25,000 deaths every year. Older people, the very young, and people with existing heart and lung conditions are more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution.
Los principales capítulos del informe se distribuyen de la siguiente manera:
- Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy (Esperanza de vida y Esperanza de vida saludable)
- Major causes of death and how they have changed (principales causas de muerte y evolución de las mismas)
- Trends in morbidity and behavioural risk factors (tendencias en morbilidad y en estilos de vida)
- European comparisons (comparaciones con Europa)
- Inequality in health (Desigualdades en salud)
- Social determinants of health (determinantes sociales de salud)
- Current and emerging health protection issues (temas actuales y emergentes sobre protección de la salud).
Acceso a toda la información:
- Acceso al informe completo
- Acceso a la información sobre los diez puntos clave
- Resumen narrativo del Health Profile England
- Acceso al sistema de monitorización de indicadores del Public Health England (en los que se inspira el sistema de monitorización de Estrategias del Observatorio de Salud en Asturias).
- Descarga de datos e infografías